Saturday, December 9, 2017

नेपालीमनले देखेको अमेरिका

सामान्यत मेरो मनले बिदेसमा देखिने भौतिक संरचना देखेर Wow !! भन्दैन तर यो पहिलो तस्बिरमा देखिएको Liberty Island देखेर मनले भित्रै बाट Wow भनेको थियो/ त्यो देखेर चाई अमेरिका प्रति मन लोबीएको थ्यो येहा पनि त प्रकृतिको काखमा रमाउन पाइने रहेछ/ तर र्ज वाशिङटनको भनेको एउटा कुरा याद आयो; “संसारको सबैभन्दा सुन्दरी तिमी लाग्छ आमा…” त्यसैले होला बिदेशमा बस्ने हरेक नेपालीलेत् एकदिन नेपाल फर्कने सपना पालेको हुन्छ, म त् एउटा यात्रु न परे दोस्रो तस्बिरमादेखिएझै नेपालका हरेक ठाउँबाट देख्न सकिने यो मनोरम दृश्यको मायाले त्यो लोबलाइ दिगो राख्न सकेन/ आशाले मानिसलाई जिवित राखेको हुन्छ र आशाले उर्जा सिंचित गर्दछभनेझै आफ्नो मन अझै पनि देस भित्रकै संघर्समै रमाउन थाल्यो एउटा सुन्दर दिनको पर्खाईमा/

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

NEA Election: Appeal to Candidates

Dear all,
I am viewing the profile of different candidate from different panels and also viewing election manifesto of various panels.  Till now i found most of the candidate following the same political culture and agendas, which the candidate of our preceding generation follows. Likewise, it is very sad to say that even young candidate also follows the same. So, how we believe them that they will work for our vision of transformation of current status of engineering education and practice in Nepal. So i am putting questions to all the candidate, so that i can support and make other to support them in the NEA election.

To begin with, lets have a quick review of our past culture and activities. The preceding generations follows the rituals of joining a political party during their higher studies in universities and supporting the agendas put forwarded by the leaders, either they like or do not like that. And they keep their support in their professional life too. This political attachment is mainly due to fact that they cannot progress themselves without being attached to any of leading political parties. Conclusively, they give candidacy form same political party with the same non-progressive agendas put forwarded by the party. So, we do not have to looked after their personal profile while voting them. Although some of them argue that we are politically conscious but it is not clear where is self consciousnesses if one thinks only for one party mandates.

In contrast to preceding generations, i believe voters who are engineers themselves are not willing to cast vote to the single panels, which are also panels representing major failure political parties of Nepal. In addition, the candidate themselves mostly form the government and bureaucratic level are can be regarded as failure personality as most of them suggest their succeeding generation to go abroad. Moreover, according to them they itself become unskilled enough to struggle in other/foreign environment as they contribute their productive age in developing political career and supporting agendas of political parties. Therefore, this generations voters are finding their ideal candidate who can lead and apply their vision of internationalization of engineering education and practice in Nepal.

Here are some of my key question to candidate which will influence me and many other voters and make mind either to support them or not.

1. What are your professional and academic achievements so far in regards to which we can take u as our leader.
2. What is your key strategies to unify all other your co-members in NEA form different panels to implement your vision.
3. How will you address the aspiration and expectations of new generation Nepalese engineers who want internationalization in every activities. So what are your international exposures and linkage so that you can ensure this.
4. How you will address the issues of brain drain and immigration of bright and productive engineering manpower who should actually led the responsibility of advanced infrastructure and economic development and what are your key activities for reverse migration.
5. How will you address the issue of  de-politicization of NEA and other institutions.
6. How will you promote innovation and standardization of engineering practice in Nepal.

Hoping to see your answers so that we can make mind to support you.
Thanks



Wednesday, August 17, 2016

A craziest guy, an exploring girl and two other hard working brilliant youths, a team of a bigger dreams, aims at innovation in integrating GWVPP in existing water infrastructure

I am writing this article about my experience while working in a research project in titled "Technical and economical pospective for the site implicaiton of  low head gravitational water vortex power plant"with my research interns of Vortex Energy Solution from central campus pulchowk IOE, Abhash Acharya, Anil Nepal and Tara Aryal. 

Abstract
The micro hydro powers are the most prospective and promising renewable energy sources for off-grid energy generation in remote areas. This study focuses on integrating a type of low-head micro hydro i.e gravitational water vortex turbine into existing water infrastructure. Three types of existing water infrastructure are considered applicable for hydropower integration: irrigation canals, reservoirs and weirs. The theoretical designs for the civil works for the low-head gravitational water vortex power plant integrated into these structures are given and the costs of construction are estimated. A scalable system of 1.6kW is also designed and integrated in a existing irrigation canal for the technical performance evaluation and validate the theoretical economical study. The study concludes that the performance of turbine is mostly suitable for rural electrification and to integrate in cost-effective way, the civil works and installation cost should be greatly reduced.

Keywords low head turbine, cost, hydropower integration


Article in progress..............

Wednesday, August 10, 2016

Journey battle of home made archery to battle of machines ABU ROBOCON 2012

The best work is work that is fun! You enjoy your hobby, so why not take those great ideas, a little determination and turn your hobby into a career. I used to play battle game with own made archery that show up in hobby of working with machines, the more powerful a lead these things provided in steering me to meaningful professional and career choice as mechanical engineering. Choosing a hobby as career, besides outstanding academic achievements i also got opportunity to represent my nation in the international arena amidst other nation in the very start of my career. Asia- Pacific Robot Contest-or as it is more popularly refereed to, the ABU Robocon- was the very first international exposure to my career.  


Perhaps it is the odd Hollywood movie—the kind the industry churns out every once in a while—that has wrought in our minds visions of mechanical wonders and futuristic worlds often too fantastic to be true. Whimsically constructed machines are shown maneuvering in clearly  implausible environs, and these images that pop culture has to offer are largely figments of people’s imagination, yet to be released.

For those living in Kathmandu, such mechanical innovations might seem even more incongruous given our contrasting surroundings, which is why most of us will find it hard to believe that there exist groups of young Nepali undergraduates who toil every year to compete in an international robot competition. If that wasn’t surprising enough, they’ve also, till date, always been counted among-st the best teams from South Asia. In fact, the Nepali team has even fared better in the Asia-Pacific Robot Contest, or as it is more popularly referred to—the ABU Robocon—than India, a country noted for the stellar quality of its technical universities and the prowess its graduates have displayed in the field over the years.

A select, voluntary group of students in their third and fourth years of Bachelor in Engineering Studies at the Pulchowk Engineering Campus—most from the mechanical and electronics engineering departments—have been participating in the ABU Robocon every year since the Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union (ABU) first introduced the contest in 2002. As a non-profit, professional association of broadcasting organisations that aims to aid the development of broadcasting in the Asia-Pacific region and promote the collective interests of its members, the ABU’s involvement in the robotics competition is as much a cultural celebration as it is a technical one.Every year the organizers select a theme that is culturally significant, and unique to the country that’s hosting the Robocon. The contest itself is nothing short of a “world cup for robot and technology enthusiasts” from the Asia-Pacific region and beyond.

In the year 2012 bout was set to take place in the glittering city of Hong Kong, and the robots that participated were expected to complete a number of allocated tasks, including travelling through simulated tunnels and bridges, locating a ‘bun tower’ and snatching as many of these ‘buns’ as possible. As a city made up of some 200 or so small-sized islands, Hong Kong’s landscape is marked by a profusion of bridges and tunnels. So, the ‘landscape’ the participating robots will have to man-oeuvre through during the contest—set to took place on August 19—was a reflection of the city’s unique metropolitan feature. It is interesting to note that these robots was being taking part in a tradition that the people of Hong Kong’s tiny island of Cheung Chau have been practicing for the past 100 years. The Cheung Chau Bun Festival is an annual affair in which three giant 60-foot bamboo towers, referred to as the ‘Bun Mountains,’ must be stripped of their buns. This was traditionally achieved by young men clambering on top of the towers, but rules have evolved over the years, and these days, only one person is designated to climb each tower.

The practice is believed to bring good fortune to the families of those who manage to strip off the buns placed highest on the towers, and perhaps this is where Robocon 2012 derives its slogan: ‘In Pursuit of Peace and Prosperity.’ The Nepali team set a goal to succeeds in putting up a good show at the festival, that will mean a lot for this group of self-motivated students who have been working, oftentimes without even going home to sleep, purely for the joy of creating, reveling in the bit-by-bit progression of a machine which has come about through their collective ideas and efforts.

There is nothing glitzy, or even the least bit glamorous about the one-storied building from which the Pulchowk Engineering Campus’ Robotics  Club operates. In fact, the brick and concrete structure is rather garage-like; a small group of young men—their hair disheveled and their shirt sleeves rolled up—tinker on an assortment of greasy, noisy machines. Yet, they work wholeheartedly—there is no easy way around this—for in it they find a practical outlet for all that they’ve learnt in their three or four years of college, as well as outside of it. Having thus synthesized their minds and energies into one specific end, to get to compete with others with similar inclinations and interests on an international platform is an incredible opportunity for the team.  Robocon gives the students at Pulchowk a “creative platform”, one that helps advance their steps forward in the ever-intriguing field of technology.





Ref: Article on The Kathmandu Post in title Battle of Machines Jul 27, 2012












Encourage innovation: A relatively new technology has the potential to end the country’s energy crisis

Government of Nepal declared an energy emergency last February – the third one in the last eight years – and targeted to end the energy crisis in two years. With the recent change of government, the fate of the plan is in limbo. Hydropower, the major source of Nepal’s electricity generation, can’t end Nepal’s energy crisis in such a short time by virtue of its capital intensive and time consuming nature. Alternative technologies like solar, micro-hydro, biogas, and wind have been explored, and for several reasons they have not been enough. More appropriate energy generation technologies have to be explored to widen energy access to different parts of Nepal.

A relatively new technology invented in Austria in 2007 and improvised by researchers of Nepal, shows promise of delivering small amount of electric power, from few kilowatts up to 25 kilowatts, generated using the vortex of flowing water. The technology is named Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant (GWVPP). When water passes through a strategically designed basin, vortex of water is formed causing the turbine located at the center of the basin to rotate. The energy of the turbine can either be used mechanically or be used to generate electricity. Compared to most hydropower plants of Nepal that need hundreds of meters of head (difference of height between the points from where water is first released from river or dam to the location of turbine), and micro-hydro power plants that need tens of meters of head, GWVPP can operate in less than a meter of head.

With relatively lower installation costs and low head requirement, these plants can be installed in many places in Nepal, including Terai, thus providing a novel alternative for electricity generation for places without access to national electricity grid. Small power plants like these can be beneficial for small and medium enterprises in using local and renewable energy resources, thus greatly reducing operating costs and carbon footprint.

Nepali researchers started research works in GWVPPs in Nepal since 2012. After continuous efforts of several researchers of Nepal, two major innovations were accomplished. Instead of original design with cylindrical basins, conical basins were found to be more efficient in forming water vortices. Similarly, if the turbine is positioned at 60 to 70 % of height from bottom, efficiency would be optimum. These innovations were a result of rigorous mathematical modeling, laboratory tests, and design efforts. The researchers overcame problems typically faced by researchers in developing countries including lack of adequate funding, lack of technical expertise, difficulty in manufacturing, and little support from government and non-governmental bodies.  The results obtained have been peer reviewed and accepted by the scientific community in international conferences and academic journals, including Elsevier’s Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.   

Only few research efforts make it from academia to industry and society, which is even less so in Nepal. Besides academic and professional recognition, scientists and researchers covet the potential impact and implementation of their ideas and findings for society the most. The improved design of Nepali researchers, currently patent pending, is finding few takers in Nepal. Currently, a GWVPP of 1.6 kW capacity is being installed in Bagmati River at Gokarna, Kathmandu. The plant will supply electricity to a nearby orphanage and Martyr’s Park.

Technical and commercial feasibility of installation of these plants have been studied for several locations. The goal of the innovators is to install a minimum of 50 such plants ranging from 5 kW to 20 kW capacity in the next 5 years. The initiative led by Institute of Engineering, Pulchowk Campus has garnered support from Kathmandu University and University of Bristol. More research into financial, economic, social and policy dimensions and implications of the technology are in pipeline.
Low head small scale hydro-electricity generation is feasible in many places of Nepal, including Terai and has the potential to help abate the energy poverty Nepal is facing. Innovations made in Nepal’s universities should find its way to society and international scientific community. Research and innovation initiatives like this should be supported by government, people, media, and all to encourage Nepali innovators to develop appropriate solutions to Nepal’s pressing problems.

http://kathmandupost.ekantipur.com/news/2016-08-02/encourage-innovation.html

Rabin Dhakal and Kshitiz Khanal

Rabin Dhakal is a lecturer at Kantipur Engineering College and Kshitiz Khanal is a researcher at Kathmandu University. 

Sunday, July 17, 2016

My Experience of Research to Practice of Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant in Nepal

It is often claimed that scientist and researchers are the citizens of the world; they have no boundaries. But as a researcher of third world countries like Nepal the real challenge is when making the research works recognizable to the world. Almost all of us researchers have dream to discover new ideas which induce high impact to society and also want the ideas be implemented in real world. To represent one’s nation in the international arena, to hold its flag high amidst other nations, is a matter of great pride. And the Research and Practice on Gravitational water vortex power plant was the perfect opportunity for me and my fellow researchers at Institute of Engineering, Central Campus Pulchowk.

After rigorous research of 3 years, we the researchers of Institute of Engineering, Pulchowk Campus have been successful in optimizing a design of new and innovative technology addressing the current energy crisis in Nepal. The Gravitational Water Vortex power plant (GWVPP) is a new type of technology in which the energy of flowing water is extracted by a turbine placed at the center of a vortex that develops in a rotation tank (basin). Since such vortex can be formed at heads as low as 0.7 m, the gravitational water vortex power plant do not need a large head like other hydroelectric power plant. The construction cost is relatively small. This makes them suitable on river across the Nepal, at thousands of locations. GWVPP designed to be installed in remote areas of terai region that would never see grid expansion and is designed to electrify a small community of up to 200 homes per pant under Nepali consumptions patterns. As most of cottage industries are located in such sector they can be benefited. This has the possibility of removing the need for mega hydropower stations. The installation of gravitational water vortex power plant can act as an exemplary project that can have huge environmental benefit with no negative environmental impact. Thus, for developing country like Nepal, this technology of power production can be a boon to eradicate energy crisis.

Low head turbine can be the most suitable option for rural electrification. GWVPP is a new and emerging technique in context of low head hydro power. The research on the gravitational water vortex power plant originates from Austria in the year 2007.After introduction of GWVPP in Nepal as a master degree research project of a student in the year 2012, it become eye-catching and interesting topic for the researchers around Nepal. Two other batches of 2013 and 2014 of mechanical engineering continued the research of GWVPP with the goal to optimize the efficiency of power plant. Conventionally the Austrain are using cylindrical basin structure to form a water vortex which is main source of power in GWVPP. So our main interest to design the parameters of the vessel to increase the strength of water vortex. With the rigorous research on the design parameters for about 3 years we have developed a new mathematical model for the design of the basin structure and got a conclusion that the conical basin structure is efficient than cylindrical basin structure to create water vortex. After finding a suitable basin structure to form water vortex, we move forward to optimize the design of the turbine of power plant. With many experimental testing and mathematical analysis we got a conclusion that the position of turbine inside basin effect the efficiency to large extent and its position about 60%-70% height of basin from bottom position is optimum for maximum power extraction. These two findings are breakthrough in research and development of GWVPP. We have published research articles in many National and international conference including world hydro conference at USA and Renewable Energy Conference at Korea, with many awards like innovative awards, best practice awards, special awards and best one is the publication in the world’s top journal in Renewable Energy Field i.e. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.

As we all know, there are large impedances to explore your capabilities here in Nepal and the challenge amplifies as it is a very small technological field. Everyone has dream to serve their country but very few people are not obliged to leave for abroad. My fellow colleagues who are involved in research project have engagements which does not allow them to stay in Nepal but I am striving here to commercialize the research findings. But some generous people form inside and outside country helped me concerning commercialization of this project which was noteworthy and made it conducive enough to test the patent pending design successfully in Bagmati River at Gokarna, Kathmandu this week which is of 1.6kW capacity. We are planning to supply the electricity to an orphanage house and Martry’s Park near the site of installation.We have also taken the initiative to commercialize this project in various regions of Nepal by doing feasibility study at many locations with goal to lessen the imbalance between energy supply and energy demand prevailing in the country by the effective utilization of this technology and bringing about economic benefit for all. We have taken a goal that by the fifth year of the project, minimum of 50 GWVPP of capacity ranging from 5kw to 20 kW will be installed with continuation of the research in collaboration with Institute of Engineering (TU), Turbine Testing Lab of Kathmandu University School of Engineering, and University of Bristol, United Kingdom.

In a conclusion, our vision of empowering the society by exploiting our own immense water and natural resource through promising technology is appreciated by all. The experiences we collected during the research and development of gravitational water vortex power plant made us realize one important fact that we can lead in research and development in globe if only we focus on the research based on technology that we have within Nepal.








Thursday, March 5, 2015

Economic Feasibility Study of Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant for the Rural Electrification of Low Head Region of Nepal and Its Comparative Study with Other Low Head Power Plant

Abstract:
The world is competing for energy and hydropower is a clean source of energy or electricity. The field of Hydro-power has often witnessed the discovery of new types of plants and components therein, by using simple principles of physics and mechanics. Gravitational water vortex power plant (GWVPP) has lately been eye-catching and interesting topic for researchers throughout the globe. The research work on GWVPP till now have found that the different  geometrical  parameters  like  (i)  basin opening, (ii) basin diameter, (iii) notch length, iv)  canal height, and v) cone angle are predominant in the design of basin structure of the Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant and also shown that the conical basin structure is more  efficient  than  cylindrical  basin  structure. The study shows that the conical basin structure have 75% efficiency which is about twice more efficiency than the cylindrical basin structure. The past experimental study on three profiles of runners for GWVPP also shows that the runner having curved profile is more efficient than straight profile. Hence the gravitational water vortex power plant is now in the final stage of commercialization in Nepal.So this study encompass the economic feasibility study of the optimized conical basin and runner for the GWVPP in context of Nepal and the economic aspect of conical basin structure is compared with the economic aspect of various other type of low head power plant used for the power production. Also the comparative study of the economics aspect of GWVPP with the economic aspect of existing large hydropower projects of Nepal.


Keywords: Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant, Conical Basin, Geometrical Parameters Mathematical, Model, Optimization

Introduction:
The objective of this paper is :
i)                    To conduct the case studies of the economic aspect of various low head turbine technology used in Nepal and compared it with GWVPP.
ii)                  To compare the economic aspect of the GWVPP with the economic aspect of existing large hydro power projects of Nepal.

            Findings form this study will be considered as vital input in study of economic aspects of commercialization of Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant for the rural electrification of rural communities of Nepal.Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant is a new technology in which potential energy of water is converted to kinetic energy by a rotation tank (basin) and this kinetic energy of water is extracted by a turbine in the center of vortex.
Gravitation water vortex power plants do not need a large head like other hydroelectric plants; they can operate on heads as low as 0.7m. The construction costs are relatively small. This makes them suitable on rivers across the Nepal, at thousands of locations. This has the possibility of removing the need for mega hydropower stations. The installation of GWVPP can act as an exemplar project that can have huge environmental benefit with no negative environmental impact. Moreover, GWVPP is safe for fish due to low turbine speed and improves water quality by oxygenation. Thus, for a developing country, like Nepal, this technology of power production is a boon to eradicate energy crisis.

GWVPP in Nepal

Although the research on the GWVPP is started in the world in the year 2007, The Research on the GWVPP started in the year 2012 in Nepal in Tribhuvan university, Central Campus Pulchowk, Institute of Engineering.  In first year the main area of focus is develop innovative low head water turbine for free flowing streams suitable for micro-hydropower in Terai region of Nepal. In the study, water vortex was created by flowing water through an open channel to a cylindrical structure having a bottom whole outlet. The research concluded that basin geometry depends on the discharge supplied. 

Fig: Test Rig for the experimental study of GWVPP in IOE in year 2012
Runner for the power production
In the year 2013 the the study is carried out in two phases. In the  first  phase, two different turbines  were designed  and  fabricated  and  the  performance  characteristics  of  the  new  turbines  were compared  with  that  of  the Old turbine .  The second phase included the design and fabrication of the conical basin. Experimental tests  were  carried out and the performance of  the  system  using  the  conical  basin  was  compared  with  that  of  the  system  using  the cylindrical basin. The value of velocity head increases with the increase in depth. Hence greater efficiency was noted at the bottommost position. Similarly, the values of efficiency were greater for turbines with smaller number of blades. There was a significant distortion of vortex even with  smaller  loads  in  case  of  the  turbine  configuration  with  greater  number  of  blades. Also, increase in the radius of the blades caused a decrease in the efficiency of turbines. The tests also indicated that the vortex strength of water in the conical basin is greater than that in the cylindrical basin.  Consequently, turbine efficiency was greater in the conical basin compared to the cylindrical basin.
                                                          
      Fig: Cylindrical Basin Structure                                      Fig: Conical Basin Structure
In the final year of the research an analysis of various geometrical parameters of conical basin design of the vortex plant is done. For given flow and head, the following parameters were considered: (i) basin opening, (ii) basin diameter, (iii) notch length, iv) canal height, and v) cone angle. The parametric effects on vortex formation and energy are evaluated  in  terms  of  vortex  velocity  by  using  state  of  the  art  procedures  of  Computational  Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Different basin configurations were developed by using SolidWorks software and the models were simulated in the CFD code of ANSYS Fluent.  Each  parameter  is  varied  individually  and corresponding  velocity  (within  a  range  of  interest)  is  noted,  which  is  followed  by  a  development  of mathematical model and is optimized using EXCEL. The so developed optimized model is fabricated and tested.
Fig: Test Rig for the experimental study of conical basin structure

model 1
  model 2  model 3
Fig : Various Profile of runner used for the power production
Fig: Optimized design of conical basin structure
Now the GWVPP is in the final stage of commercialization in Nepal but the study of runner is yet to be made. The primilinary economic analysis shows that the cost of production of 1kw system is around 3 lakhs. This may vary according to cannel length, cost of civil structure to be made.

Comparitive Study with other low head power plant( Case of Improved water mills and Pico Hydro)
Improved Water Mills
The Improved Water Mill (IWM) is a modified version of traditional water mill. IWM is an intermediate technology that increases the efficiency of the traditional water mill resulting in increased energy output thus helping both the millers and its users. The improvement covers basically the replacement of wooden parts (rotor, shaft and chute) with metallic parts. This increases its operational efficiency as well as making it more useful with additional machines for hulling, electricity generation and so on. The rotations per minute (rpm) of the shaft range around 200-300 rpm while the power output ranges from 0.5 kW to 3 kW. The grinding capacity ranges from 20- 50 kg maize per hour. The frequency of repair/maintenance of IWM is low in comparison to TWMs while the life span is around 10 years. The chute is mostly wooden, sometimes however are found also of polyethylene or of tin sheet.
IWM technology can generate up to 3 kW of electricity sufficient for lighting and operating small electric and electronic devices such as television, radio, computer, battery charging stations, and other small electric home appliances.
Fig: Improved Water Mills
Improved Water Mill in Nepal
The history of development of Improved Water Mill (IWM) in Nepal dates back to the early 1980s, when the Research Centre for Applied Science and Technology (RECAST), a research and development wing of Tribhuvan University (TU), developed a prototype of an improved version of water mill. In the prototype wooden paddles were replaced by hydraulically more efficient metallic blades, and a new bottom bearing. This prototype with a closed chute and a covered chamber was tested in a mill at Godavari, Lalitpur.
The technology was subsequently promoted among the farmers with involvement of a manufacturing company, the Kathmandu Metal Industries (KMI). The unit was called Multi- Purpose Power Unit (MPPU). A number of farmers adopted the technology; the experience of this effort was critical in further improving the technology and gain experience on its social acceptance.
Major efforts towards the improvement of water mill were initiated by GTZ/GATE under “Activating Traditional Indigenous Techniques” programme in which the traditional water mills were improved by using local materials and skills of village craftsmen. While the metal parts mainly the kit runner, shaft/axle, and belt/pulley were improved the other parts of the water mill such as chute, framework, stone grinder, canal and intake were kept intact without any change. This provided the interested entrepreneurs an opportunity to install IWM with low investment.
For generation of 1kw power the cost of installation is about NPR 3,8000W. Operational cost varies according to the type of end use.

Economic Aspect
Before the installation of IWM electrification, most of the villagers were using kerosene for lighting. Around 1.5 litres of kerosene was consumed per household per month. At NPR 70 per litre, the 35 households of the community spent about NPR 44,100 (USD 555.2) on kerosene annually.15 This expenditure was reduced to NPR 21,000 after the community installed an IWM with 3 kW electrification. IWM program also promote the women empowerment as the time and effort given to the hulling of maize and other crops gets lower.

Pico Hydro
The development of Pico Hydro Power plant is started by the organization PEEDA in Nepal. Pico Hydro system are used in remote areas to supply electrical power to areas with no grid connection. They are usually intended for lighting application. Micro Hydro Power plant are of size 200W to 2KW. To address the commercialization utilization of Pico Hydro Power plant PEEDA recently has developed a new controller in the industrial collaboration with Kathmandu Energy and power Group (KAPEG) under Renewable Nepal Programme. With the new excitation system and control system added, new ELC is able to start the drill machine, television, computer and other electronic equipment’s that require high inrush current to operate. Thus for the first time, Pico hydro system with self-excited induction generator can be used to operate income generating power tools and processing equipment’s. Despite the initial cost per KW, the minimal cost required for running the scheme and great potential for it to open up new revenue streams, make the technology not only economically feasible, but also profitable for the poor communities of Nepal. The electrification of people’s homes reduce their use of fossil fuel and traditional biomass.

Comparison of economic aspect with other low head power plant

In comparison to economic aspect of other different low head power plant like IWM, Micro Fransis, Pico Propeller, cross flow turbine etc. , The cost of installation of the  Gravitational water vortex power plant is comparable to all of us. The major benefit of the installation of GWVPP is  GVP plants can use local materials and do not need to dam the water to operate.The GVP plant merely uses the water for a few seconds as it flows on its way down stream. GVP is designed to be installed in remote areas of flat region that would never see grid expansion into local villages and is designed to electrify a small community of up to 200 homes per plant under Nepali consumption pattern. As most cottage industries are located in such sector they can be benefited. Hence Gravitational Water vortex Power Plant can be a step toward a green industrial development as the materials used for construction of GVPP be bought locally and those living close to the GVP plants can maintain and repair the generators and mechanical components themselves. Thus GVPP installed in existing irrigation projects is economic way of Agro based industrial Development and also for rural electrification electrical poles.This means revenue circulates throughout a local area and the community sees a direct economic benefit. Thus GVPP installed in existing irrigation projects is economic way of Agro based industrial Development and also for rural electrification. 

Comparison of economic aspect with large hydro power plant

We have taken a large-scale project first, the Upper Tamakoshi Hydroelectric Project. The project cost  is estimated  at  NRs.35.29  billion  equivalent  to  US  $441  million  excluding  interest  for  five  years  on  the project  (with  exchange  rate  of  1US$=  NRs.  80)  and  will  have  a  Maximum  Output  of  456MW  per  day during the monsoon. Cutting that number by 60% or more during the dry season. The additional cost is in 132  kV  High Voltage  Transmission Lines  for future  grid extension between$8000–10,000 per km and rising  to  around  $22,000  in  difficult  terrain.  Sub-station construction and additional road building at $20,000per km.  Hence the project cost would be round off to $500 million and also these lines will bypass most rural communities on its wayto India in Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs).

Comparing  smaller  GWVPP  plants  using  local  materials,  the  cost  of  each  plant  can  comes  in around$10,000  and  does  not  dam  the  water  in  order  to  operate.  The GWVPP  plant  merely  uses  the water  for  a  few  seconds  as  it  flows  out  the  bottom  on  its  way  downstream.  Just  the  environmental advantages  to  its  usage  warrant  further  investigation  as  a  solution.GVP  is  designed  to  be  installed  in remote  areas that would never  see grid  expansion into local villages and  is designed to electrify a  small community of up to 200 homes per plant under Nepalese consumption patterns.

If we use the same figure of$500 million for one large project that provides diminishing electrical output as  rains  decrease  from  October  to  May each  year,  we  could  build  50,000GVP  plants.  These  plants generating  57  MWh  per  year  would  equal  2,850,000MWh  or  2,850  GWh  annually  fed  directly  to  the local communities  in remote  locations that  need it most.  The forecast annual energy output from the ‘Upper Tamakoshi Hydroelectric Project’ is 2,281GWh. We can generate more power from GWVPP, save on the amount of construction materials and do not need to dam an entire river.

Acknowledgement
This study acknowledges the support from Alternative Energy Promotion Center, Ministry Of Science, Technology & Environment, and Government of Nepal. We would like to express our deepest gratitude towards our Project Supervisors Prof.Dr. Tri Ratna Bajracharya , Associate Professor Dr. Hari Neopane and Assistant Professor Er. Raj Kumar Chaulagin. We would also like to thank to members of PEEDA, CRE, Grid Nepal for providing us valuable information.

Conclusion
The feasibility study showed that low head Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant fill a gap in the Nepalese renewable Energy Market. This study shows that GWVPP is viable and attractive option for poor rural communities and can greatly benefit them. A figure of 50000 such sites are highly suitable for the low head Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant. Wide range of benefits include socio-economic, financial and environmental gains. The low head GWVPP also provides an opportunity to address current rural/urban and regional energy access disparities of Nepal.

References:
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2.    2..Bajracharya, T. R., Thapa, A. B., Pun, P., Dhakal, S., & Nakarmi, S. (2013). DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF RUNNER AND CONICAL BASIN FOR GRAVITATIONAL WATER VORTEX POWER PLANT.Kathmandu: Institute of Engineering, Central Campus, Pulchowk.

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